In this very useful manual, Dr. Ragusa has presented all the Italian really needed in everyday life and contemporary situations, without devoting space to the intricacies of literary, archaic, and poetic forms that you are not likely to need. It is remarkable how readily Italian grammar lends itself to this form of essential grammar, for within this book Miss Ragusa has presented her material with such clarity that you will probably remember most of what you have read after a single reading. Among the unusual features of this presentation are an extremely clear statement of the complex pronoun situation, an easily followed analysis of the various verb tenses and moods, and a most useful discussion of the many verb idioms that are so important in Italian. All the major aspects of Italian grammar are presented in logical, developmental order: vocabulary, vocabulary building, word order, turning negative sentences into positive and vice versa, forming questions, nouns, articles, prepositions, adjectives, adverbs, verbs, verbal idioms, and whatever else is necessary to a knowledge of essential Italian. An appendix contains clear definitions of all the grammatical terms used in the book. Essential Italian Grammar is not a simplified grammar, not an abridged grammar, but a selected grammar for adult use, with emphasis upon explanation rather than rote memory, and with inclusion of much phrase material for examples. It can be used as a supplement to a course, as an introduction, or as a refresher for those who have already studied Italian.